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At the end of the game, if the losing player has borne off at least one checker, he loses only the value showing on the doubling cube one point, if there have been no doubles.
However, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers, he is gammoned and loses twice the value of the doubling cube.
Or, worse, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers and still has a checker on the bar or in the winner's home board, he is backgammoned and loses three times the value of the doubling cube.
Optional Rules. The following optional rules are in widespread use. Automatic doubles. If identical numbers are thrown on the first roll, the stakes are doubled.
The doubling cube is turned to 2 and remains in the middle. Players usually agree to limit the number of automatic doubles to one per game.
When a player is doubled, he may immediately redouble beaver while retaining possession of the cube. The original doubler has the option of accepting or refusing as with a normal double.
The Jacoby Rule. Gammons and backgammons count only as a single game if neither player has offered a double during the course of the game. This rule speeds up play by eliminating situations where a player avoids doubling so he can play on for a gammon.
The dice must be rolled together and land flat on the surface of the right-hand section of the board. The player must reroll both dice if a die lands outside the right-hand board, or lands on a checker, or does not land flat.
A turn is completed when the player picks up his dice. If the play is incomplete or otherwise illegal, the opponent has the option of accepting the play as made or of requiring the player to make a legal play.
A play is deemed to have been accepted as made when the opponent rolls his dice or offers a double to start his own turn. If a player rolls before his opponent has completed his turn by picking up the dice, the player's roll is voided.
This rule is generally waived any time a play is forced or when there is no further contact between the opposing forces.
Rules in German. Those triangles are known as points, and represent the place the checkers can be moved on. In the middle, separating the board in half, you have what is called the bar.
This is where your checkers go when they are hit by your opponent. This is where you need to bring all your checkers.
The area of 6 points located opposite to your home the top right is your opponent home. In your home also called inner board , the point the most at the right is your first point, followed by your 2nd, 3rd, 4th point and so on.
For your opponent, the same principle applies symmetrically. This is because you are going to move your checkers clockwise, while your opponent is moving them counterclockwise.
Obviously, nothing stops you from having your board setup in an opposite way. What we mean is your home board can perfectly be in the area from the 7th to 12th points on the picture above.
As long as you have a good amount of checkers on the good points, you are fine. Some players prefer the way we just showed you, some others prefer to play opposite.
It is also commonly referred to by shesh besh shesh meaining six in Hebrew , Aramaic and Northwest Semitic , and besh meaning five in Turkish , amongst Arabs as well as by some Kurdish, Persian and Turkish speakers.
Shesh Besh is commonly used to refer to when a player scores a 5 and 6 at the same time on dice. An older game resembling backgammon may have also been played in the easternmost part of the prehistoric Iranian plateau , far from Mesopotamia.
The rules of this game, like others found in Egypt, have yet to be deciphered. It is however made from ebony, a material more likely to be found in the Indian subcontinent which indicates such board games may be more widespread than once thought.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Iranologist Touraj Daryaee , Chair of Persian Studies at U. Irvine, on the first written mention of earlier variants of backgammon—writes:. The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon.
Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.
In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube.
It is described in an epigram of Byzantine Emperor Zeno AD — Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six.
The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
The earliest known mention of the game is in Ovid 's Ars Amatoria 'The Art of Love' , written between 1 BC and 8 AD. In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.
Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks.
It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere. Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Asodio: Also known as Acey-deucey , where all checkers are off the board, and players enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.
These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns.
After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. There is no doubling cube. Over time it was replaced by other games such as xiangqi Chinese chess.
In Japan, ban-sugoroku is thought to have been brought from China in the 6th century, and is mentioned in Genji monogatari.
As a gambling game, it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
In Korea, it is called Ssang-ryuk or Jeopo. The jeux de tables 'Games of Tables' , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.
In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.
A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers. Backgammon appears widely in paintings of this period, mainly those of Dutch and German painters, such as Van Ostade , Jan Steen , Hieronymus Bosch , and Bruegel.
Some surviving artworks are Cardsharps by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and The Triumph of Death by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.
Others include Hell Bosch and Interior of an Inn by Jan Steen. In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.
In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English : gamen , meaning "game" or "play".
The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.
It was first introduced in the s in New York City among members of gaming clubs in the Lower East Side.
The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".
He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.
Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments, and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion.
Most recently, the United States Backgammon Federation USBGF was organized in to repopularize the game in the United States.
Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community.
The USBGF has recently created a Standards of Ethical Practice to address issues on which tournament rules fail to touch.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One of the oldest board games for two players. For other uses, see Backgammon disambiguation.
A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.
Play media. Main article: Tables board game. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, the picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times.
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See also: List of World Backgammon champions. See also: Nard game. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. New Series 1 9 : — A History of Board-Games Other than Chess.
Hacker Art Books. Backgammon For Dummies. Backgammon to Win. Lulu Com. Backgammon Galore!. Rules of play describe a particular variation of backgammon and on this there is no disagreement among international tournaments.
In fact, tournament rules sets do not usually specify these rules but might instead refer, as in the US Rules, to the 'commonly accepted rules of backgammon.
Gaming Guide - Gambling in Europe. Backgammon for Winners Third ed. Leave another triangle blank this is already after the centre line and place five white counters, opposite five black counters.
Finally, place two black counters on left hand side triangle nearest you. Opposite you guessed it are placed two white counters.
That's all, the backgammon position is ready, and the games can now begin. Note that the first few moves taken from the backgammon starting position are crucial.
A game can be thrown away by a bad move, even the first of the match.The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon". Method 3 of Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to Dfb Aktuell that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to that player. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. The numbers on the two dice constitute separate moves. The board setup and backgammon starting position is the same for most backgammon versions, whether online or offline. Rated this S Broker Test. Rules in Italian. The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Choose another answer! The reverse numbering of the points applies when white is on roll, with the point referred to as the 1-point, and so forth. The backgammon opening All games start with the same position. So you should know what the best moves are. The right replies to the opening are often not so easy find, but because these positions arise so frequently you should study them carefully. Starting position of your checkers on your backgammon board. Before starting any backgammon game, your 15 checkers have to be placed as follows: 5 checkers on your 6 points ; 3 checkers on your 8 points ; 5 checkers on your 13 points ; 2 checkers on your 24 points. Starting Position The arrangement of checkers at the start of a game. Each player has 2 checkers on the opponent's one-point, 5 checkers on the mid-point, 3 checkers on the eight-point, and 5 checkers on the six-point. See: the Rules of Backgammon.