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The passing of the Declaration of Independence meant that the thirteen original British colonies in North America ceased to be colonies and officially at least according to them became a sovereign nation.
READ MORE: Colonial America. But, as I said before, this is just the simple answer and the simple answer may or may not be correct depending on when you count the birth of a nation.
It separated from a landmass known as Laurentia Lauren, to her friends which also contained Eurasia, around million years ago. If you believe the age of the United States should be counted from when the Native Americans first set foot on the North American continent, then the age of the United States is somewhere between 15, and 40,years-old.
E and 38, B. E via a land bridge connecting North America to Siberia. He set sail on the evening of August 3, , in three ships: the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
The worksheet will help you estimate what percentage of your current annual salary you should be saving. While it does not take into account your unique circumstances, it will help you plan for your retirement goals.
This leaves approximately 40 percent to be replaced by retirement savings. Keep in mind, this is an estimate and you may need more or less depending on your individual circumstances.
The more years you have until retirement, the less you will have to save each month to reach your goal. No matter your age, for every 10 years you delay starting to save for retirement, you need to save 3 times as much each month to catch up.
Based on current estimates, a 65 year old man can expect to live approximately 18 years in retirement, and a 65 year old woman can expect to live about 20 years, but many people live longer.
Planning to live well into your 90s can help you avoid outliving your income. The worksheet takes into account some factors that impact your retirement savings.
First, investing - because it involves risk. Your target savings rate includes any contributions your employer makes to a retirement savings plan for you, such as an employer matching contribution.
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Explore our homework questions and answers library Search. Browse Browse by subject. Ask a Question. But how old is the US?
The history of the United States of America dates back to the prehistory of the Native Americans and the colonial period.
The people who lived in present-day America arrived in the early s, mostly from England. The Spanish and French built small settlements in Florida, along the Mississippi River, the southwest, and the Gulf Coast.
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History of the United States. US Constitution. Declaration of Independence. This marked the rise of the Hawaiian civilization, which would be largely separated from the rest of the world until the arrival of the British years later.
Europeans under the British explorer James Cook arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in , and within five years of contact, European military technology would help Kamehameha I conquer most of the people, and eventually unify the islands for the first time; establishing the Hawaiian Kingdom.
The earliest recorded European mention of America is in a historical treatise by the medieval chronicler Adam of Bremen , circa , where it is referred to as Vinland.
Whilst the strongest archaeological evidence of the existence of Norse settlements in America is located in Canada, most notably at L'Anse aux Meadows and it is dated to circa , there is significant scholarly debate as to whether Norse explorers also made landfall in New England and other areas of the USA.
After a period of exploration sponsored by major European nations , the first successful English settlement was established in Europeans brought horses, cattle, and hogs to the Americas and, in turn, took back maize, turkeys, tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco, beans, and squash to Europe.
Many explorers and early settlers died after being exposed to new diseases in the Americas. However, the effects of new Eurasian diseases carried by the colonists, especially smallpox and measles, were much worse for the Native Americans, as they had no immunity to them.
They suffered epidemics and died in very large numbers, usually before large-scale European settlement began.
Their societies were disrupted and hollowed out by the scale of deaths. Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to reach the present-day United States, after Christopher Columbus 's expeditions beginning in established possessions in the Caribbean , including the modern-day U.
Virgin Islands. In , Hernando de Soto extensively explored the Southeast,  and a year later Francisco Coronado explored from Arizona to central Kansas in search of gold.
The Dutch West India Company sent explorer Henry Hudson to search for a Northwest Passage to Asia in New Netherland was established in by the company to capitalize on the North American fur trade.
Growth was slow at first due to mismanagement by the Dutch and Native American conflicts. The town rapidly expanded and in the mid s it became an important trading center and port.
Despite being Calvinists and building the Reformed Church in America , the Dutch were tolerant of other religions and cultures and traded with the Iroquois to the north.
The colony served as a barrier to British expansion from New England , and as a result a series of wars were fought.
The colony was taken over by Britain in and its capital was renamed New York City. New Netherland left an enduring legacy on American cultural and political life of religious tolerance and sensible trade in urban areas and rural traditionalism in the countryside typified by the story of Rip Van Winkle.
Notable Americans of Dutch descent include Martin Van Buren , Theodore Roosevelt , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Eleanor Roosevelt and the Frelinghuysens. In the early years of the Swedish Empire , Swedish, Dutch, and German stockholders formed the New Sweden Company to trade furs and tobacco in North America.
The company's first expedition was led by Peter Minuit , who had been governor of New Netherland from to but left after a dispute with the Dutch government, and landed in Delaware Bay in March The settlers founded Fort Christina at the site of modern-day Wilmington, Delaware , and made treaties with the indigenous groups for land ownership on both sides of the Delaware River.
Over the following seventeen years, 12 more expeditions brought settlers from the Swedish Empire which also included contemporary Finland, Estonia, and portions of Latvia, Norway, Russia, Poland, and Germany to New Sweden.
The colony established 19 permanent settlements along with many farms, extending into modern-day Maryland , Pennsylvania , and New Jersey.
It was incorporated into New Netherland in after a Dutch invasion from the neighboring New Netherland colony during the Second Northern War.
Giovanni da Verrazzano landed in North Carolina in , and was the first European to sail into New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay. A decade later, Jacques Cartier sailed in search of the Northwest Passage, but instead discovered the Saint Lawrence River and laid the foundation for French colonization of the Americas in New France.
After the collapse of the first Quebec colony in the s, French Huguenots settled at Fort Caroline near present-day Jacksonville in Florida.
After this, the French mostly remained in Quebec and Acadia , but far-reaching trade relationships with Native Americans throughout the Great Lakes and Midwest spread their influence.
French colonists in small villages along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers lived in farming communities that served as a grain source for Gulf Coast settlements.
The French established plantations in Louisiana along with settling New Orleans , Mobile and Biloxi. The English, drawn in by Francis Drake 's raids on Spanish treasure ships leaving the New World, settled the strip of land along the east coast in the s.
The first British colony in North America was established at Roanoke by Walter Raleigh in , but failed. It would be twenty years before another attempt.
The early British colonies were established by private groups seeking profit, and were marked by starvation, disease, and Native American attacks.
Many immigrants were people seeking religious freedom or escaping political oppression, peasants displaced by the Industrial Revolution, or those simply seeking adventure and opportunity.
In some areas, Native Americans taught colonists how to plant and harvest the native crops. In others, they attacked the settlers.
Virgin forests provided an ample supply of building material and firewood. Natural inlets and harbors lined the coast, providing easy ports for essential trade with Europe.
Settlements remained close to the coast due to this as well as Native American resistance and the Appalachian Mountains that were found in the interior.
The first successful English colony, Jamestown , was established by the Virginia Company in on the James River in Virginia. The colonists were preoccupied with the search for gold and were ill-equipped for life in the New World.
Captain John Smith held the fledgling Jamestown together in the first year, and the colony descended into anarchy and nearly failed when he returned to England two years later.
John Rolfe began experimenting with tobacco from the West Indies in , and by the first shipment arrived in London. It became Virginia's chief source of revenue within a decade.
In , after years of disease and Indian attacks, including the Powhatan attack of , King James I revoked the Virginia Company's charter and made Virginia a royal colony.
New England was initially settled primarily by Puritans fleeing religious persecution. The Pilgrims sailed for Virginia on the Mayflower in , but were knocked off course by a storm and landed at Plymouth , where they agreed to a social contract of rules in the Mayflower Compact.
Like Jamestown, Plymouth suffered from disease and starvation, but local Wampanoag Indians taught the colonists how to farm maize.
Plymouth was followed by the Puritans and Massachusetts Bay Colony in They maintained a charter for self-government separate from England, and elected founder John Winthrop as the governor for most of its early years.
Roger Williams opposed Winthrop's treatment of Native Americans and religious intolerance, and established the colony of Providence Plantations , later Rhode Island , on the basis of freedom of religion.
Other colonists established settlements in the Connecticut River Valley, and on the coasts of present-day New Hampshire and Maine. Native American attacks continued, with the most significant occurring in the Pequot War and the King Philip's War.
New England became a center of commerce and industry due to the poor, mountainous soil making agriculture difficult. Rivers were harnessed to power grain mills and sawmills, and the numerous harbors facilitated trade.
Tight-knit villages developed around these industrial centers, and Boston became one of America's most important ports.
In the s, the Middle Colonies of New York , New Jersey , and Delaware were established in the former Dutch New Netherland, and were characterized by a large degree of ethnic and religious diversity.
At the same time, the Iroquois of New York, strengthened by years of fur trading with Europeans, formed the powerful Iroquois Confederacy.
The last colony in this region was Pennsylvania , established in by William Penn as a home for religious dissenters, including Quakers , Methodists , and the Amish.
While Quakers populated the city, German immigrants began to flood into the Pennsylvanian hills and forests, while the Scots-Irish pushed into the far western frontier.
The extremely rural Southern Colonies contrasted greatly with the north. Outside of Virginia, the first British colony south of New England was Maryland , established as a Catholic haven in The economy of these two colonies was built entirely on yeoman farmers and planters.
The planters established themselves in the Tidewater region of Virginia, establishing massive plantations with slave labor, while the small-scale farmers made their way into political office.
In , the Province of Carolina was established, and Charleston became the region's great trading port. While Virginia's economy was based on tobacco, Carolina was much more diversified, exporting rice, indigo, and lumber as well.
In the colony was split in half, creating North and South Carolina. The Indian massacre of Jamestown settlers in Soon the colonists in the South feared all natives as enemies.
John Gadsby Chapman , Baptism of Pocahontas , on display in the Rotunda of the U. Religiosity expanded greatly after the First Great Awakening , a religious revival in the s which was led by preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield.
American Evangelicals affected by the Awakening added a new emphasis on divine outpourings of the Holy Spirit and conversions that implanted new believers with an intense love for God.
Revivals encapsulated those hallmarks and carried the newly created evangelicalism into the early republic, setting the stage for the Second Great Awakening in the late s.
Each of the 13 American colonies had a slightly different governmental structure. Typically, a colony was ruled by a governor appointed from London who controlled the executive administration and relied upon a locally elected legislature to vote on taxes and make laws.
By the 18th century, the American colonies were growing very rapidly as a result of low death rates along with ample supplies of land and food.
The colonies were richer than most parts of Britain, and attracted a steady flow of immigrants, especially teenagers who arrived as indentured servants.
Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. Typically, people would sign a contract agreeing to a set term of labor, usually four to seven years, and in return would receive transport to America and a piece of land at the end of their servitude.
In some cases, ships' captains received rewards for the delivery of poor migrants, and so extravagant promises and kidnapping were common.
The Virginia Company and the Massachusetts Bay Company also used indentured servant labor. The first African slaves were brought to Virginia  in ,  just twelve years after the founding of Jamestown.
Initially regarded as indentured servants who could buy their freedom, the institution of slavery began to harden and the involuntary servitude became lifelong  as the demand for labor on tobacco and rice plantations grew in the s.
The question of independence from Britain did not arise as long as the colonies needed British military support against the French and Spanish powers.
Those threats were gone by However, London continued to regard the American colonies as existing for the benefit of the mother country in a policy known as mercantilism.
Colonial America was defined by a severe labor shortage that used forms of unfree labor , such as slavery and indentured servitude. The British colonies were also marked by a policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, known as salutary neglect.
This permitted the development of an American spirit distinct from that of its European founders.
An upper-class emerged in South Carolina and Virginia, with wealth based on large plantations operated by slave labor. A unique class system operated in upstate New York , where Dutch tenant farmers rented land from very wealthy Dutch proprietors, such as the Van Rensselaer family.
The other colonies were more egalitarian, with Pennsylvania being representative. By the midth century Pennsylvania was basically a middle-class colony with limited respect for its small upper-class.
A writer in the Pennsylvania Journal in summed it up:. The People of this Province are generally of the middling Sort, and at present pretty much upon a Level.
They are chiefly industrious Farmers, Artificers or Men in Trade; they enjoy in are fond of Freedom, and the meanest among them thinks he has a right to Civility from the greatest.
The French and Indian War —63 , part of the larger Seven Years' War , was a watershed event in the political development of the colonies.
The influence of the French and Native Americans, the main rivals of the British Crown in the colonies and Canada, was significantly reduced and the territory of the Thirteen Colonies expanded into New France , both in Canada and Louisiana.
The war effort also resulted in greater political integration of the colonies, as reflected in the Albany Congress and symbolized by Benjamin Franklin 's call for the colonies to " Join, or Die ".
Following Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of , with the goal of organizing the new North American empire and protecting the Native Americans from colonial expansion into western lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
In the following years, strains developed in the relations between the colonists and the Crown. The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act of , imposing a tax on the colonies, without going through the colonial legislatures.
The issue was drawn: did Parliament have the right to tax Americans who were not represented in it?
Crying " No taxation without representation ", the colonists refused to pay the taxes as tensions escalated in the late s and early s.
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Retrieved August 23, The Sydney Morning Herald. In , taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to In , they amounted to Excluding Chile and Mexico, the United States raises less tax revenue, as a share of the economy, than every other industrial country.
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